1 Ballistic Missile Defence Shield
The Indian Ballistic Missile Defense Program is an initiative to develop and deploy a multi-layered Ballistic Missile Defence.
Introduced in light of the ballistic missile threat from Pakistan, it is a two tiered system consisting of two interceptor missiles, namely the Prithvi Air Defence (PAD) missile for high altitude interception, and the Advanced Air Defence (AAD) Missile for lower altitude interception. The two-tiered shield should be able to intercept any incoming missile launched 5,000 kilometers away.
PAD was tested in November 2006, followed by AAD in December 2007. With the test of the PAD missile, India became the fourth country to have successfully developed an Anti-ballistic missile system, after United States, Russia and Israel. On March 6, 2009, India again successfully tested its missile defense shield, during which an incoming "enemy" missile was intercepted at an altitude of 75 km
2 FGFA - Sukhoi/HAL Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft
The current prototype is Sukhoi's T-50. The PAK FA when fully developed is intended to replace the MiG-29 Fulcrum and Su-27 Flanker in the Russian inventory and serve as the basis of the Sukhoi/HAL FGFA project being developed with India. A fifth generation jet fighter, it is designed to directly compete with Lockheed Martin's F-22 Raptor and F-35 Lightning II. The T-50 performed its first flight January 29, 2010. Its second flight was on February 6 and its third on February 12.
Sukhoi director Mikhail Pogosyan has projected a market for 1000 aircraft over the next four decades, which will be produced in a joint venture with India, two hundred each for Russia and India and six hundred for other countries.
According to HAL chairman A.K. Baweja shortly after the India-Russia Inter-Governmental Committee meeting on 18 September 2008, the Russian aircraft will be a single-seater, the Indian FGFA will be a twin seater, analogous to the Su-30MKI which is a twin seat variant of the baseline Su-30. Two separate prototypes will be developed, one by Russia (designated the T-50), and a separate one by India (designated FGFA
The symbolic launch ceremony for the Arihant was held on July 26, 2009 marked the anniversary of Vijay Diwas (Kargil War Victory Day). It was reported that the nuclear reactor and other systems were not included at the time of the submarine's launch. Navy chief Admiral Nirmal Verma said in December 2009, "Work is in progress to make INS Arihant operational for sea-trials...it should be inducted in two years or so."
In 2010, the submarine was reported to have begun its sea trials with the submarine to be formally inducted into the Indian Navy by 2011. Full integration of key systems and Sea trials are expected to be extensive. The name of the vessel, Arihant is in Sanskrit and literally translates into destroyer of enemies.
The completion of the INS Arihant will make India one of six countries in the world with the ability to design, build, and operate its own nuclear submarines (the others being the United States, the UK, Russia, France, and China).
The Vikramaditya is a modified Type 1143 Kiev class aircraft carrier built in 1978-1982 at Black Sea Shipyard, Mykolaiv, Ukraine. The ship is presently being extensively refitted at Sevmash shipyard in Russia. It is projected to replace India's only currently serving aircraft carrier, INS Viraat.
The Vikrant class carriers will be the largest warships built by CSL. Work on the lead vessel of the class started in 2008, and the keel was laid in February 2009. Eighty percent of works on the carrier will be completed before its launch in 2010. The first carrier of the class was expected to enter service by 2012, but was delayed by a year reportedly due to the inability of Russia to supply the AB/A grade steel. This led to SAIL creating facilities to manufacture the steel in India. In August 2009 the military purchasing publication Defence Industry Daily reported that the in-service date had slipped to at least 2015.
6 Phalcon and DRDO AWACS
The only platforms offering such a capability, albeit a limited one, are the spy planes of the R&AW's Aviation Research Centre and the IAF's fleet of Israeli-built Heron and Searcher-II drones.
The aircraft can do this using its Israeli-built AEW mission suite called the Phalcon, mounted on a Russian-built IL-76 transport aircraft. The system is used for tactical surveillance of airborne and surface targets and intelligence gathering to a radius of over 400 km. The solid-state phased array Elta EL/M-2075 radar is mounted on a radome above the fuselage. The electronically steered beam provides a 360 degree coverage around the aircraft and it carries air force personnel on board to analyse the data and steer fighter aircraft.
"AEWs have a three-fold advantage of flexibility-they can be deployed anywhere, provide much better coverage because they are mounted on an elevated platform and carry control systems and datalinks, which can be used to vector your own fighter aircraft," says Air Marshal V.K. Bhatia, former western air commander.
Development and manufacture of indigenous Radar is included in AWACS programme. The possibilities of marketing Indian technology for surveillance equipment in world markets have not been assessed
Its first stage lofts it to 40 km. altitude. The second stage is used for cursing towards the target while maneuvering with an aim of rendering interception difficult. During the endgame, the missile guides itself to the target.
DRDO claims the missile is capable of striking within 20-30 metres of its target after travelling 750 kilometres.
Speaking to the press at DefExpo 2010, DRDO Chief VK Sarsawat said, "Like a ballistic missile, it is powered by solid fuel. And, like a cruise missile, it can guide itself right up to the target."
The air-launched version, will be lighter and smaller than the land-based version of the missile so that it can be fitted to the aircraft. One of the two speed boosters in the missile has been removed for the air version of the weapon system as after being launched from an aircraft moving at a speed of more than 1.5 mach, the missile will automatically gain its momentum and maintain its speed of 2.8 mach, the sources said.
After being released from the aircraft, the missile will have a free fall of about 150 metres before getting activated and flying to its target. The range and speed of the missile will remain the same as that of its land and ship-launched versions, they said.
For the integration of the aircraft with the missile, two of IAF Su-30 MKI planes will be used. These aircraft would be the part of the 40 additional Su-30s, for which orders were placed in 2006.
Soon after induction into the IAF, the two aircraft will be sent back to Russia where their airframe will be strengthened to carry the missile in their underbelly, the source said adding, they are expected to be inducted into the operational service of both India and Russia by 2012.
The SPYDER-SR (short range) system has 360° engagement capability and the missiles can be launched from the full-readiness state in less than five seconds post target confirmation. The kill range is specified as being less than 1km to more than 15km. The altitudes range from a minimum of 20m to a maximum of 9,000m. The system is capable of multi-target simultaneous engagement and also single, multiple and ripple firing, by day and night and in all weathers.
Rafael is developing a medium-range version, SPYDER-MR, which has a range over 35km at altitudes from 20m to 16km. SPYDER-MR carries eight missiles while SPYDER-SR has four.
SPYDER-MR also has new IAI/Elta MF-STAR surveillance radar.
The main components of the SPYDER system are the truck-mounted command and control unit, the missile firing unit with Python 5 and Derby missiles, a field service vehicle and missile supply vehicle.
The system can launch missiles in two modes of operation: lock on before launch (LOBL) and lock on after launch (LOAL).
A typical SPYDER squadron consists of one mobile command and control unit (CCU) and four mobile firing units (MFU). The mobile CCU is equipped with a surveillance radar and two operator stations with a radio datalink between the CCU and the four MFUs.
Covering a range of 70 km, the new missile will almost double the range of the 60km vertically launched Barak 8 shipborne missile (also known as Barak NG) currently being developed for the Indian and Israeli Navies under a US$480 million five year program launched in early 2006.
On May 12, 2010 Boeing announced that it received the Data Link II communications technology for the Indian Navy’s P-8I from Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) in April, one month ahead of schedule. BEL delivered the Indian-designed communications system that will enable exchange of tactical data and messages between Indian Navy aircraft, ships and shore establishments. Boeing will install the system during P-8I final assembly.
F - INSAS
F-INSAS is a Ultra Mordern Programme that has been taken up to equip Indian infantry with the future weaponry, communication network and instant access to information on the battlefield.
This program is similar to the future soldier programs of other nations. F-INSAS includes a fully networked all-terrain, all-weather personal-equipment platform, enhanced firepower and mobility for the digitalised battlefield of the future. The weight carried by soldiers will need to be reduced by at least 50%.
The fully integrated Infantry of tomorrow will be equipped with mission-oriented equipment integrated with his buddy soldier team, the sub-unit, as also the overall C4I2 (Command, Control, Communications Computers, Information and Intelligence) system
Light Combat Helicopter, LCH
In 2006, HAL announced its plans to build a LCH. Funds for the design and development of the LCH to meet the requirements of the Indian Army and the Indian Air Force were sanctioned in October 2006.
The LCH is a derivative of the HAL Dhruv, which was inducted into the Indian armed forces. Using a successful and proven helicopter as the base platform is expected to conserve the project costs for the LCH, which is pegged at INR 3.76 Billion (US$78.8M).
The LCH was expected to be ready for the Initial Operational Clearance (IOC) by December 2010 with the Final Operational Clearance (FOC) in 2011. However, the revised timeframes hold that the 5.5-tonne LCH should be ready for induction into IAF by 2012-2013.
The first prototype of LCH completed its first ground run on February 4. HAL has a firm order to deliver 65 LCH to the IAF and 114 to the Army.
HAL has performed the maiden flight of its indigenously designed and developed LCH. The first Technology Demonstrator (TD-1) of the LCH flew the 20 minute flight from HAL's Helicopter Complex, Bangalore on 29th March 2010. This flight provided an opportunity to carry out low speed, low altitude checks on the systems on-board. The crew reported that the performance of the helicopter and systems was satisfactory.
ARJUN MARK 2 & FUTURE MBT
Arjun’s new version boasts of an improved missile firing range apart from a latest laser system, which can detect explosives on the ground. Another critical feature of the tank is that a missile can be fired from it to destroy long range targets and also shoot down enemy helicopters.
The critical summer trials of the Arjun Mark-II version took place in June in Pokhran, Rajasthan and were conducted by the DRDO, while the winter trials are expected to take place later in the year. The June trials have already seen the Arjun MBT Mark-II tested with a number of technical improvements, including command panoramic sight and uncooled thermal image. It has been estimated that 40 more technological improvements are to be tested, including a new transmission control system and new fuel tanks. The first phase of the end user trials will happen by October or November for the missile and other design improvements.
CVRDE Director P. Sivakumar has indicated that the Arjun Mark II MBT will have a total of 93 upgrades including 13 major improvements as compared to Arjun Mark I. The major upgrades would be missile-firing capability against long-range targets, panoramic sight with night vision to engage targets effectively at night, containerisation of the ammunition and enhanced main weapon penetration. There will also be additional ammunition types, explosive reactive armour, and an advanced air-defence gun to engage helicopters, a mine plough, an advanced land navigation system and a warning system which can fire smoke grenades to confuse laser guidance. Other upgrades are an enhanced Auxiliary power unit providing and improved gun barrel.
DRDO chief VK Saraswat said the German engine on the current version of the tank would be replaced by an Indian power plant and the new variant (Arjun Mk-II) would have 90% indigenous component. Saraswat, also the scientific adviser to the defence minister, told HT at Aero India-2011: "The new variant will have high indigenous quotient, except for some hydraulic and electronic systems. The tank should be ready in early 2014. It will feature several modifications including superior missile firing capabilities." On June-2011 the Mk-II begun to undergo trials at Pokhran ranges in Rajasthan. The Mk-II is also expected to go through its winter trials later the same year.
Arjun tank hull and turret has been modified to achieve the target weight of about 55 tons from 59-64 tons. Elbit is helping to enhance its firepower and battlefield survivability and IMI is helping to augment Arjun Mk II’s mobility, redesign its turret and hull and improve its production-line processes told Rahul Bedi, Jane's correspondent.
The Arjun MKII variant is to be followed by the Futuristic Main Battle Tank (FMBT), which started development in 2010. The Indian Army plans to induct the FMBT from 2020 onwards. The FMBT will be a lighter tank of 50 tons.
Urgently in need of capable tanks, the army has worked with DRDO to finalise a broad range of capabilities for the FMBT. These have been formalised in a document called the Preliminary Specifications Qualitative Requirement (PSQR). The detailed specifications of the FMBT, once finalised, will be listed in General Staff Qualitative Requirements (GSQR).
Amongst the capabilities being finalised for the GSQR are: active armour, which will shoot down enemy anti-tank projectiles before they strike the FMBT; extreme mobility, which makes the FMBT much harder to hit; the capability to operate in a nuclear-contaminated battlefield without exposing the crew to radiation; and the networked flow of information to the FMBT, providing full situational awareness to the crew, even when “buttoned down” inside the tank.
Also being finalised is the FMBT armament, a key attribute that determines a tank’s battlefield influence. The Arjun already has a heavy 120mm ‘main gun’, and two small-calibre machine guns; the recently ordered batch of 124 Arjuns will also fire anti-tank missiles through their main gun. The army wants all of those for the FMBT, with ranges enhanced through technological improvements.
However, the DRDO chief ruled out an electromagnetic gun, the next generation in high-velocity guns towards which armament technology aspires. “The Future MBT is not so far in the future,” Saraswat quipped.
DRDO is also developing the AURA (Autonomous Unmanned Research Aircraft) which is an Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle for the Indian Air Force. The design work on the UCAV is carried out by Aeronautical Development Agency (ADE). The AURA UCAV will be a tactical stealth aircraft built largely with composites, and capable of delivering laser-guided strike weapons. It would be a stealthy flying-wing concept aircraft with internal weapons and a turbofan engine.
India will soon embark on developing an indigenous unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV) for surveillance, detection and destroying specific targets, a top defence official said on Wednesday. "We will soon embark on designing and developing an unmanned combat aerial vehicle, which will not only do surveillance, but will also help detect the target and destroy the identified object," V.K. Saraswat, scientific advisor to Defence Minister A.K. Antony, told reporters here.
An UCAV or 'combat drone' differs from ordinary UAVs as it is designed to deliver weapons. The pilotless vehicle can carry greater payloads and have wide range and manoeuvrability in the absence of a cockpit and associated equipment.The ambitious project will be taken up by the Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) of the state-run Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) in Bangalore with private industry participation. "The controls of a combat drone will be rested with multiple command control centres. The centres can be geographically at different locations. Even if one centre becomes defunct, the drone can be controlled and guided by other centres," Saraswat, who recently took over as director general of the DRDO, said on the margins of a conference."The UCAV will work in a multi-layer manner for which ADE is developing the required technology, including sensors," Saraswat said after inaugurating the fifth national conference on 'NextGen IT for Indian Defence'.
At a Glance
Capable of releasing missiles, bombs and PGM at enemy targets
Internal Weapons Bay
Weight: 15 ton
The UCAV is currently referred to as IUSAP FOR Indian Unmanned Strike Aircraft Program.AURA will be developed by Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) at Bangalore in collaboration with Defence Avionics Research Establishment (Bangalore), Defence Electronics Application Lab (Dehradun) and Gas Turbine Research Establishment (Bangalore).DRDO is confident of developing the UCAVs mainly on its own, with "some foreign consultancy or collaboration" in fields like stealth as well as autonomous short-run take-off and landing, according to Dr. Prahlada
In August 2011 a DRDO official told the press that the UCAV maybe powered by the indigenous 75kN thrust Kaveri engine
The 40 Skeets scan an area of 1,500 feet (460 m) by 500 feet (150 m) using infrared and laser sensors, seeking targets by pattern-matching. When a Skeet finds a target it fires an explosively-formed penetrator to destroy it. If a Skeet fails to find a target, it self-destructs 50 feet (15 m) above the ground; if this fails, a back-up timer disables the Skeet. These features are intended to avoid hurting civilians later, and result in an unexploded-ordnance rate of less than 1%.
As the CBU-97 approaches its designated aim-point, the dispenser skin is severed into three panels by an explosive cutting charge. The slipstream peels away these panels, exposing the 10 BLU-108 submunitions. An airbag ejects the forward five submunitions, then five in the aft bay. Following a preset timeline, the submunitions deploy parachutes so that they are spaced about 100 feet (30 m) apart. Then each submunition releases its chute, fires a rocket motor that stops its descent and spins it on its longitudinal axis, and releases pairs of Skeets 90 degrees apart. Each spinning Skeet makes a coning motion that allows it to scan a circular area on the ground.
The laser sensor detects changes in height such as the distinctive contour of a vehicle. At the same time, infrared sensors detect heat signatures, such as those emitted by the engine of a target vehicle. When the combination of height contours and heat signatures indicative of a target are detected, the Skeet detonates, firing an explosively formed penetrator (EFP) into the target vehicle at high speed, enabling it to penetrate armor plating and destroy what is underneath the armor plating. Note that SFW disables targets using the kinetic energy of the EFP, not the blast of an explosive charge.
Nirbhay (Sanskrit: Nirbhay "Dauntless/Fearless") is a long range, subsonic cruise missile being developed in India. The missile will have a range of 1,000 km and will arm three services, the Indian Army, Indian Navy and the Indian Air Force. The Nirbhay will be able to be launched from multiple platforms on land, sea and air. The missile is being developed by the Advanced Systems Laboratory, a division of DRDO and after finalizing the design, the technology required for the missile is being developed. The first test flight of the missile is expected in the year 2012. Nirbhay will be a terrain hugging, stealthy missile capable of delivering 24 different types of warheads depending on mission requirements and will use an inertial navigation system for guidance. Nirbhay will supplement Brahmos in the sense that it would enable delivery of warheads farther than the 300 km range of Brahmos
Weight 1,000 kg
Length 6 m
Diameter 0.52 m
Operationalrange 1,000 km
Speed 0.7 mach
Guidance system INS